Overview[ edit ] Definitions of complexity often depend on the concept of a confidential " system " — a set of parts or elements that have relationships among them differentiated from relationships with other elements outside the relational regime. Many definitions tend to postulate or assume that complexity expresses a condition of numerous elements in a system and numerous forms of relationships among the elements. However, what one sees as complex and what one sees as simple is relative and changes with time.
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license http: Abstract Understanding the spatial point pattern of human settlements and their geographical associations are important for understanding the drivers of land use and land cover change and the relationship between environmental and ecological processes on one hand and cultures and lifestyles on the other.
Remotely sensed tools and regression models were employed to identify the effects of geographical determinants on settlement locations in the Wen-Tai region of eastern coastal China. Results indicated that human settlements displayed regular-random-cluster patterns from small to big scale.
Most settlements located on the coastal plain presented either regular or random patterns, while those in hilly areas exhibited a clustered pattern. Moreover, clustered settlements were preferentially located at higher elevations with steeper slopes and south facing aspects than random or regular settlements.
Regression showed that influences of topographic factors elevation, slope and aspect on settlement locations were stronger across hilly regions.
This study demonstrated a new approach to analyzing the spatial patterns of human settlements from a wide geographical prospective. We argue that the spatial point patterns of settlements, in addition to the characteristics of human settlements, such as area, density and shape, should be taken into consideration in the future, and land planners and decision makers should pay more attention to city planning and management.
Conceptual and methodological bridges linking settlement patterns to regional and site-specific geographical characteristics will be a key to human settlement studies and planning.
Settlements provide a spatial focus for most human activity, and therefore also strongly affect local land cover, water quality, and biodiversity [ 2 ]. Consequently, human settlement acts as the most fundamental link between people and Earth, and reflects the interaction of people with the surrounding environment [ 34 ].
Settlement locations are determined by local amenities, economic factors, communications [ 56 ], and are always subject to food availability and production capacity [ 78 ].
They are thus influenced to a large extent by topography, water accessibility, and transportation proximity [ 91011 ]. As a result, the locations of human settlements are unevenly distributed across various spatial scales.
Analyzing the spatial patterns of settlements can contribute to greater understanding of land use changes, ecological processes, cultures and lifestyles, etc. Many recent case studies have been conducted to analyze the spatial patterns of human settlements. Previous studies focused on the area, density and shape of human settlements [ 1213 ].
However, the spatial characteristics of settlement location itself received little attention. The locations of human settlements can be simplified as multiple points within a given space and scale. Fewer studies have characterized the spatial point patterns of settlement locations [ 141516 ].
Many approaches were used to explore the spatial point pattern of human settlement, such as nearest neighbor distance technique and hazard functions [ 141617 ]. Nearest neighbor distance technique was widely used in many previous studies, due to its simplicity and ease of implementation [ 1819 ].
This function is a second-order statistical method which is based on the distribution of the distances of points and is able to describe fine- and medium-scale spatial correlation pattern of these points.
It has been widely used in wildlife habitat characterization [ 242526272829 ], but it may also offer useful insight about the spatial characteristics of human settlements.
We maintain that the scientists and decision-makers can determine the current spatial patterns of human settlement with this function, and that this information may make the consequences of the plans and policies clearer.
Understanding the size, pattern and spatial distribution of human settlements is fundamental for distributing resources, settlement management and socio-economic development [ 173233 ]. Site- and situation-specific geographical factors can critically influence human settlement patterns.
Similarly, we proposed that development patterns of different counties in Wen-tai region, in eastern coastal China, have been differentially influenced by their particular geographical factors. The key question in recent years facing land planners and decision makers in this region is how to manage human settlement to balance the increase of population and loss of farmland [ 38 ].
For the coastal areas, rapid socio-economic development was anticipated to result in dramatic population growth and human settlement expansion.
The goal of this study is to investigate the spatial variation in geographical associations or influences on current settlement patterns. Understanding this variation could provide valuable insight for planners and decision-makers as they respond to and prepare for this growth.
It contains 16 counties, covers 21, km2, and had a population of about This region has a subtropical monsoon climate with moderate temperatures, abundant precipitation, and distinct seasons.
The average annual temperature in this region is The topography of this region is rugged: The eastern coastal region plain is lower and more level, while the western regions are comprised of valleys surrounded by steep mountains, typically covered in dense forests.
Like other parts of eastern coastal China, the Wen-Tai region has recently witnessed explosive socio-economic development. A unique aspect of Wen-Tai is its distinctive economic development patterns. Wen-Tai relies heavily on its own resources, and local governance, and is therefore less affected by national trends and policies than other regions in coastal China.
As a consequence, settlement locations within this region are mainly affected by local and geographical factors.DOD's Section Advisory Panel DOD has announced the names of the 18 appointees to its Section Advisory Panel on Streamlining and Codifying Acquisition Regulations. «Lack of Livejournalling | Main | Happy Devil Day!.
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Mar 10, · Many approaches were used to explore the spatial point pattern of human settlement, such as nearest neighbor distance technique and hazard functions [14,16,17]. Nearest neighbor distance technique was widely used in many previous studies, due to . To provide flexibility for company-specific disclosure, the amendments allow a registrant to disaggregate the specified categories by using other categories suitable to its business, but the table must include all of the obligations that fall within specified categories. In addition, the table should be accompanied by footnotes necessary to describe material contractual provisions or other. Put relative strengths and weaknesses in context. After a company gets to knows itself and its Chinese counterpart, it must evaluate the relative strengths and weaknesses of each side within the business context to prepare the negotiation strategy.
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