Cellulase research papers

History of tobacco A reproduction of a carving from the temple at PalenqueMexico, depicting a Maya deity using a smoking tube The earliest forms of cigarettes were similar to their predecessor, the cigar. Cigarettes appear to have had antecedents in Mexico and Central America around the 9th century in the form of reeds and smoking tubes.

Cellulase research papers

Mating and Gestation Differences To start with, cats and rabbits have different mating habits. Female cats are induced to ovulate by the barbs at the end of the tom's penis.

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These barbs scratch the female cat's vagina as the tom withdraws after mating; this scratching is what causes an egg to be released by the female's ovaries. Male rabbits have smooth penises i. Even if a sexually frustrated rabbit mated a female cat, the smooth penis means no stimulation of the female so she does not ovulate.

No ovulation means no eggs for the rabbit's sperm to fertilize.

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One explanation from cabbit-believers is that the female cat must mate with a tomcat immediately before or after mating with the rabbit in order to ovulate. Even if she had already ovulated from mating with a cat a few moments before or afterthe cat and rabbit genes are incompatible and cannot form an embryo; any offspring will invariably be due to the prior or subsequent mating with the tomcat.

A cotton bud can be used to bring a female off heat as it is sufficiently abrasive. Ovulation stimulated by abrasion counts against the buck rabbit; the Cellulase research papers of copulation alone would not stimulate ovulation in the female cat.

All but 4 of the cat species have 19 pairs of chromosomes while the rabbit has 22 pairs 38 chromosomes in cats, 44 in rabbits. Only genetically similar animals same number of chromosomes can hybridize.

The gestation period of the rabbit is days. This is not a "similar gestation period" - the cat's gestation period is double that of the rabbit. Barriers to Hybridisation Let's look at the natural mechanisms for keeping species separate: There is no physical separation; cats and rabbits can be found in the same regions.

Cellulase research papers

In the wild, cats would normally regard rabbits as prey, but in domestic settings there have been numerous observed mating between cats and rabbits. These have been matings in both directions i. A number of misguided individuals have attempted to breed cabbits and, encouraged by anime and folklore, continue to do so, often with disastrous results for the rabbit when the cat's predatory instinct prevailed.

So, although habitats may overlap, these are not hybridisation zones as there is no evidence of hybrids occurring. In the wild, the cat and rabbit would be deterred from mating because of their differing behaviours - the rabbit would act as a prey animal and the cat would act as a predator.

In a household, where cats and rabbits can coexist amicably, matings have been observed. So, there is not behavioural isolation in all habitats.

This would mean that the size and conformation of the two species genitalia would make copulation impossible. Cat and rabbit genitalia suggest that penetration is possible.

This would mean the size and conformation of the individuals prevent copulation. Cats and rabbits are similarly sized. In fact, far greater size differences have been overcome such as a male ocelot impregnating a female puma three times his size, and a male seal successfully copulating with a penguin.

The previous 5 barriers are, it turns out, not barriers in the case of cats and rabbits in a domestic setting. The lack of any physical cabbit progeny indicates that the 6th barrier prevents it: The sperm and egg may not fuse and hence fertilization cannot occur; or if fertilization does occur then the embryo fails to get past the first few cell division.

If the layer surrounding the ovum does not bind with the sperm because the proteins on the head of the sperm are not compatiblethe sperm can't get inside the obvum to fertilise it. That leaves only one other option: There is still no guarantee that the egg would get beyond the first several cell divisions to form an embryo.

Making such hybrids are not high on the priority list of scientists. Genetic Differences Michael Onken of the MadSci Network writes that there has never been a successful cross between a cat and a rabbit.

The production of a hybrid mammal requires a great deal of genetic sameness not just similarity between both parents and even then the offspring are often sterile or stillborn. A viable cross between creatures as different as a cat carnivore and rabbit lagomorph is impossible without extensive genetic engineering.OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR CELLULASE PRODUCTION BY NOVEL THERMOTOLERANT YEAST Priyanka Rai,a Soni Tiwari,a and Rajeeva Gaur a,* The goal of the present study was to investigate production of cellulase in low cost medium by thermotolerant yeast.

Cellulase research papers

After screening, an efficient. Crystalline cellulose is one of the major contributors to the recalcitrance of lignocellulose to degradation, necessitating high dosages of cellulase to digest, thereby impeding the economic feasibility of cellulosic biofuels.

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Megazyme's mission is to provide high quality test kits and reagents employing only the highest purity enzymes. We offer Analytical Laboratory Services assisting labs in testing samples in terms of Nutritional value of foods and feeds, quality, authenticity, or in terms of their Research .

Digestive System Differences. Herbivores evolved a gut to cope with the plant material cellulose. They produce an enzyme (cellulase) to digest this and have a long intestine which gives plenty of time for cellulose to be digested.

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