You want to start your paper off with a clear statement of the question at hand. Not only should the question be stated clearly, but it is a good idea in the first paragraph or two to give a good clear statement as to how you are going to answer the question, i. State your position and defend your answer. The main core of your paper should consist of a defense of the answer you gave.
History[ edit ] While the concept of an intelligence behind the natural order is ancient, a rational argument that concludes that we can know that the natural world has a designer, or a creating intelligence which has human-like purposes, appears to have begun with classical philosophy.
Later, variants on the argument from design were produced in Western philosophy and by Christian fundamentalism. Classical philosophy[ edit ] Socrates and the pre-Socratics[ edit ] Plato and Aristotledepicted here in The School of Athensboth developed philosophical arguments addressing the universe's apparent order logos The argument from intelligent design appears to have begun with Socratesalthough the concept of a cosmic intelligence is older and David Sedley has argued that Socrates was developing an older idea, citing Anaxagoras of Clazomenaeborn about BC, as a possible earlier proponent.
Anaxagoras is the first person who is definitely known to have explained such a concept using the word " nous " which is the original Greek term that leads to modern English "intelligence" via its Latin and French translations. Aristotle reports an earlier philosopher from Clazomenae named Hermotimus who had taken a similar position.
For example Empedocleslike Hesiod much earlier, described cosmic order and living things as caused by a cosmic version of love and Pythagoras and Heraclitus attributed the cosmos with " reason " logos.
Perhaps they are right. But he also expressed disagreement with Anaxagoras' understanding of the implications of his own doctrine, because of Anaxagoras' materialist understanding of causation. Socrates complained that Anaxagoras restricted the work of the cosmic nous to the beginning, as if it were uninterested and all events since then just happened because of causes like air and water.
In this desire to go beyond Anaxagoras and make the cosmic nous a more active manager, Socrates was apparently preceded by Diogenes of Apollonia. Plato's teleological perspective is also built upon the analysis of a priori order and structure in the world that he had already presented in The Republic.
The story does not propose creation ex nihilo ; rather, the demiurge made order from the chaos of the cosmos, imitating the eternal Forms. This debate was to persist throughout the ancient world. Atomistic mechanism got a shot in the arm from Epicurus The choice seems simple: He was very influential in the future development of classical creationism, but was not a straightforward "creationist" because he required no creation interventions in nature, meaning he "insulated god from any requirement to intervene in nature, either as creator or as administrator".
For example birds use wings for the purpose of flight. As pointed out by Sedley, "Aristotle is happy to say Physics II 8, ab4 without the slightest fear of blasphemy, crafts make occasional mistakes; therefore, by analogy, so can nature".
He explicitly compared this to human technology: If then what comes from art is for the sake of something, it is clear that what come from nature is too [ Martha Nussbaum for example has argued that in his biology this approach was practical and meant to show nature only being analogous to human art, explanations of an organ being greatly informed by knowledge of its essential function.
In any case, Aristotle was not understood this way by his followers in the Middle Ages, who saw him as consistent with monotheistic religion and a teleological understanding of all nature.
Consistent with the medieval interpretation, in his Metaphysics and other works Aristotle clearly argued a case for their being one highest god or " prime mover " which was the ultimate cause, though specifically not the material cause, of the eternal forms or natures which cause the natural order, including all living things.
And he clearly refers to this entity having an intellect that humans somehow share in, which helps humans see the true natures or forms of things without relying purely on sense perception of physical things, including living species.Buy Philosophical Writing: An Introduction: Read 2 Books Reviews - ashio-midori.com Interesting Finds Updated Daily.
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Sign in Account & Lists Sign in Account & Lists Orders 5/5(2). _Philosophical Writing: An Introduction_, _4th Edition_, features numerous updates and revisions to A. P. Martinich’s best-selling text that instructs beginning philosophy students on how to craft a well-written philosophical essay.
P. Martinich 's best-selling text, Philosophical Writing: An Introduction, aims to help those with minimal experience in philosophy to think and write successfully. It helps students gain confidence in their essay-writing skills by improving their ability to present their knowledge and thoughts clearly/5.
More advanced students might do well to read Philosophical Writing: An Introduction, by A.P. Martinich. Some final words should be added about proofreading. Do it. The teleological or physico-theological argument, also known as the argument from design, or intelligent design argument is an argument for the existence of God or, more generally, for an intelligent creator based on perceived evidence of deliberate design in the natural world..
The earliest recorded versions of this argument are associated with Socrates in ancient Greece, although it has been.
Analytic Philosophy. The school of analytic philosophy has dominated academic philosophy in various regions, most notably Great Britain and the United States, since the early twentieth century. It originated around the turn of the twentieth century as G. E. Moore and Bertrand Russell broke away from what was then the dominant school in the British universities, Absolute Idealism.