Thompson — Frank B. Gilbreth's independent work on "motion study" is on record as early as ; after meeting Taylor in and being introduced to scientific management, Gilbert devoted his efforts to introducing scientific management into factories. Harrington Emerson — began determining what industrial plants' products and costs were compared to what they ought to be in Emerson did not meet Taylor until Decemberand the two never worked together.
History[ Organizing management essay ] The organizing of information could be seen since humans began to write. Prior to that, history was passed down only through song and word.
Recording ideas in a written text, as opposed to verbally communicating with someone, and more specifically cataloging ideas and thoughts, is also an attempt to organize information. Science books are notable by their organization of a specific subject. Characteristics[ edit ] The following are the important characteristics of organization.
Specialization and division of work. The entire philosophy of organization is centered on the concepts of specialization and division of work.
The division of work is assigning responsibility for each organizational component to a specific individual or group thereof. It becomes specialization when the responsibility for a specific task lies with a designated expert in that field. The efforts of the operatives are coordinated to allow the process at hand to function correctly.
Certain operatives occupy positions of management at various points in the process to ensure coordination. Every organization has its own purposes and objectives. Organizing is the function employed to achieve the overall goals of the organization. Organization harmonizes the individual goals of the employees with overall objectives of the firm.
Composition of individuals and groups. Individuals form a group and the groups form an organization.
Thus, organization is the composition of individual and groups. Individuals are grouped into departments and their work is coordinated and directed towards organizational goals. An organization is a group of people with a defined relationship in which they work together to achieve the goals of that organization.
This relationship does not come to end after completing each task. Organization is a never ending process. It ensures the ability to adapt and adjust the activities in response to the change taking place in the external environment. The programmes, policies and strategies can be changed as and when required if the provision for flexibility is made in the organising process.
Purpose[ edit ] Helps to achieve organizational goal. Organization is employed to achieve the overall objectives of business firms. Organization focuses attention of individuals objectives towards overall objectives.
Optimum use of resources. To make optimum use of resources such as men, material, money, machine and method, it is necessary to design an organization properly. Work should be divided and right people should be given right jobs to reduce the wastage of resources in an organization.
To perform managerial function. Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling cannot be implemented without proper organization. Facilitates growth and diversification. A good organization structure is essential for expanding business activity.
Organization structure determines the input resources needed for expansion of a business activity similarly organization is essential for product diversification such as establishing a new product line. Humane treatment of employees. Organization has to operate for the betterment of employees and must not encourage monotony of work due to higher degree of specialization.
Now, organization has adapted the modern concept of systems approach based on human relations and it discards the traditional productivity and specialization approach. Applications[ edit ] Organizing, in companies point of view, is the management function that usually follows after planning.
And it involves the assignment of tasks, the grouping of tasks into departments and the assignment of authority with adequate responsibility and allocation of resources across the organization to achieve common goals.
Structure[ edit ] The framework in which the organization defines how tasks are divided, resources are deployed, and departments are coordinated.
A set of formal tasks assigned to individuals and departments. Formal reporting relationships, including lines of authority, decision responsibility, number of hierarchical levels and span of managers control. The design of systems to ensure effective coordination of employees across departments.
Work specialization[ edit ] Work specialization also called division of labour or job specialization is the degree to which organizational tasks are sub-divided into individual jobs.Organizing is the function of management which follows planning.
It is a function in which the synchronization and combination of human, physical and financial resources takes place. All the three resources are important to get results. Therefore, organizational function helps in achievement of. Management is an aspect of the business that doesn’t have the same specific duties some of the other parts of the business have.
While an accountant will always know quite clearly the expertise and responsibilities he or she has, a manager needs to have a much broader set of skills, with the tasks ranging depending on the business.
Policy Statement. Use of Georgetown University-issued accounts for Google Mail, Calendar, Groups, Talk, Docs, Sites, Video, and Contacts is governed by the . Helping Your Child with Organization and Study Skills. By: Joan Sedita. Introduction. Just as a carpenter needs the right tools (such as a saw and hammer) and basic skills (such as how to measure and cut wood) to frame a house, students need the right tools (such as notebooks and assignment pads) and basic study skills (such as reading and note-taking skills) to be successful in school.
Once a plan is in place, a manager must put it into action. This lesson explains the role of organizing as a function of management as well as its.
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. DIR Atlas AUGUSTUS (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.) [Additional entry on this emperor's life is available in DIR Archives].
Garrett G. Fagan Pennsylvania State University. Introduction Augustus is arguably the single most important figure in Roman history.