We will outline the principal movements, people, and doctrines which comprise the Reformation.
Execution of Jan Hus in Konstanz Utraquist Hussitism was allowed there alongside the Roman Catholic confession. By the time the Reformation arrived, the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Margraviate of Moravia both had majority Hussite populations for decades now.
Unrest due to the Great Schism of Western Christianity — excited wars between princes, uprisings among the peasants, and widespread concern over corruption in the Church.
Hus objected to some of the practices of the Catholic Church and wanted to return the church in Bohemia and Moravia to earlier practices: Czechhaving lay people receive communion in both kinds bread and wine — that is, in Latin, communio sub utraque speciemarried priests, and eliminating indulgences and the concept of Purgatory.
Some of these, like the use of local language as the lithurgic language, were approved by the pope as early as in the 9th century.
The council did not address the national tensions or the theological tensions stirred up during the previous century and could not prevent schism and the Hussite Wars in Bohemia. He was the father of seven children, including Lucrezia and Cesare Borgia. Martin Luther and the beginning[ edit ] See also: The theses debated and criticised the Church and the papacy, but concentrated upon the selling of indulgences and doctrinal policies about purgatoryparticular judgmentand the authority of the pope.
He would later in the period — write works on the Catholic devotion to Virgin Marythe intercession of and devotion to the saints, the sacraments, mandatory clerical celibacy, monasticism, further on the authority of the pope, the ecclesiastical law, censure and excommunication, the role of secular rulers in religious matters, the relationship between Christianity and the law, and good works.
Magisterial Reformation Parallel to events in Germany, a movement began in Switzerland under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli. These two movements quickly agreed on most issues, but some unresolved differences kept them separate.
Some followers of Zwingli believed that the Reformation was too conservative, and moved independently toward more radical positions, some of which survive among modern day Anabaptists.
Other Protestant movements grew up along lines of mysticism or humanismsometimes breaking from Rome or from the Protestants, or forming outside of the churches. After this first stage of the Reformation, following the excommunication of Luther and condemnation of the Reformation by the Pope, the work and writings of John Calvin were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various groups in Switzerland, ScotlandHungary, Germany and elsewhere.
The Reformation foundations engaged with Augustinianism ; both Luther and Calvin thought along lines linked with the theological teachings of Augustine of Hippo. Radical Reformation The Radical Reformation was the response to what was believed to be the corruption in the Catholic Church and the expanding Magisterial Protestant movement led by Martin Luther and many others.
Beginning in Germany and Switzerland in the 16th century, the Radical Reformation gave birth to many radical Protestant groups throughout Europe.
In parts of Germany, Switzerland and Austria, a majority sympathized with the Radical Reformation despite intense persecution. The Reformation was a triumph of literacy and the new printing press. From onward, religious pamphlets flooded Germany and much of Europe.
The Reformation was thus a media revolution. Luther strengthened his attacks on Rome by depicting a "good" against "bad" church.
From there, it became clear that print could be used for propaganda in the Reformation for particular agendas. June Click [show] for important translation instructions. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article.
You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary using German: Content in this edit is translated from the existing German Wikipedia article at [[: Exact name of German article]]; see its history for attribution.
For more guidance, see Wikipedia: This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. June Political situation in Germany about Religious situation in Germany and Europe about Officially, Protestantism remained an exclusively German phenomenon that concerned only the Holy Roman Empire through the late s and the s.
It did not became an international issue until the s.View Notes - Outline 3-Protestant Reformation from HIST 15 A at San Jose State University. o Henry’s divorce and the Act of Supremacy; o Confiscation of Church lands The establishment of the Church.
The Reformation I. The Protestant Reformation A. Causes of the Reformation 1. thCrises of the 14th and 15 centuries hurt the prestige of the clergy (see Unit notes) a. thBabylonian Captivity, 14 century b.
Great Schism: c. Conciliar Movement to reform the church and give. Protestantism – form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what the Protestants considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. It is one of the major divisions of Christendom, together with Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy.
The Protestant Reformation Reformation Introduction Objectives. We will attempt to define the Protestant Reformation. We will outline the principal movements, people, and . Free protestant reformation papers, essays, and research papers.
The Protestant Reformation Reformation Introduction Objectives. We will attempt to define the Protestant Reformation. We will outline the principal movements, people, and . This summary presents an outline of the Protestant Reformation of the 16 century, the religious schism which split western Christianity. The Reformation I. The Protestant Reformation A. Causes of the Reformation 1. thCrises of the 14th and 15 centuries hurt the prestige of the clergy (see Unit notes) a. thBabylonian Captivity, 14 century b. Great Schism: c. Conciliar Movement to reform the church and give.
Was the Protestant Reformation responsible for the rise of liberal democracy and the industrial economy of Western Europe? Is there a link between Protestant thought and democratic government, modern science, technology and culture?
Con: 16th Century Protestants were .