Write the constituent elements and. Criss-cross the reduced valency numerals and write them as subscripts at bottom right hand side of the symbols.
Fission and fusion, binding energy Electronic Devices Energy bands in solids qualitative ideas onlyconductors, insulators and semiconductors; Semiconductor diode — I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator.
Transistor as a switch.
Sep 08, · How to Write Ionic Compounds. Three Methods: Writing Formulas for Simple Binary Compounds Binary Compounds with Transition Metals Compounds with Polyatomic Ions Community Q&A. A "normal" atom is electrically neutral. It has an equal number of negatively charged electrons and positively charged protons, so its total 93%(3). AET Internal Combustion Engine Theory and Servicing. This is a theory/laboratory course designed to introduce the student to basic heat engine types, their . A chemical equation shows the chemical formulas of substances that are reacting and the substances that are produced. The number of atoms of the reactants and products need to be balanced.
Vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity. Voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, Imperfections- Point defects, non-stoichiometric crystals; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties; Amorphous solids — qualitative description.
Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators, and n- and p- type semiconductors. Wave-particle duality — de Broglie relation, Uncertainty principle; Hydrogen atom: Quantum numbers and wavefunctions, atomic orbitals and their shapes s, p, and dSpin quantum number.
Brief history of the development of periodic tables Periodic law and the modern periodic table ; Types of elements: Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than Lattice Energy and Born-Haber cycle; Covalent character of ionic bonds and polar character of covalent bond, bond parameters Molecular Structure: Bond dissociation, combustion, atomization, sublimation, dilution Second Law: Spontaneous and reversible processes; entropy; Gibbs free energy related to spontaneity and non-mechanical work; Standard free energies of formation, free energy change and chemical equilibrium.
Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality Solutions: Dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action Physical Equilibrium: Equilibria involving physical changes solid-liquid, liquid-gas, solid-gasSurface chemistry, Adsorption, Physical and Chemical adsorption, Langmuir Isotherm, Colloids and emulsion, classification, preparation, uses.
Oxidation-reduction reactions electron transfer concept ; Oxidation number; Balancing of redox reactions; Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; standard electrode potentials; EMF of Galvanic cells; Nernst equation; Factors affecting the electrode potential; Gibbs energy change and cell potential; Secondary cells; Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention.
Chemical Kinetics Aspects of Kinetics: Rate and Rate expression of a reaction; Rate constant; Order and molecularity of the reaction; Integrated rate expressions and half life for zero and first order reactions. Factor Affecting the Rate of the Reactions: Concentration of the reactants, catalyst; size of particles, Temperature dependence of rate constant concept of collision theory elementary idea, no mathematical treatment ; Activation energy.
Surface Chemistry Adsorption — physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gasses on solids; catalysis: Hydrogen and s-block elements Hydrogen: Properties; Structure and aggregation of water molecules; Heavy water; Hydrogen peroxide: Lithium, sodium and potassium: Abundance, distribution, physical and chemical properties, isolation and uses of elements; Trends in chemical reactivity of elements of a group; electronic configuration, oxidation states; anomalous properties of first element of each group.
Reaction of aluminum with acids and alkalis; Group 14 elements: Silica, silicates, silicone, silicon tetrachloride, Zeolites, and their uses Group 15 elements: Dinitrogen; Preparation, reactivity and uses of nitrogen; Industrial and biological nitrogen fixation; Compound of nitrogen; Ammonia: Group 17 and group 18 elements: Lanthanoids and actinoids; Oxidation states and chemical reactivity of lanthanoids compounds; Lanthanide contraction and its consequences, Comparison of actinoids and lanthanoids.
Valence-bond approach, Crystal field theory qualitative ; Isomerism including stereoisomerisms. Inductive, resonance effects, and hyperconjugation; free radicals; carbocations, carbanion, nucleophile and electrophile; types of organic reactions, free redical halogenations.
Structural isomerism and general properties and chemical reactions, free redical helogenation, combustion and pyrolysis. General methods of preparation and reactions, physical properties, electrophilic and free radical additions, acidic character of alkynes and 1,2 and 1,4 addition to dienes.
Sources; Properties; Isomerism; Resonance delocalization; polynuclear hydrocarbons; IUPAC nomenclature ; mechanism of electrophilic substitution reaction, directive influence and effect of substituents on reactivity; carcinogenicity and toxicity. Physical properties, nomenclature, optical rotation, chemical reactions and mechanism of substitution reaction.
Uses and environmental effects; di, tri, tetrachloromethanes, iodoform, freon and DDT.
BiologicalIndustrial and Environmental chemistry The Cell: Concept of cell and energy cycle. Classification; Monosaccharides; Structures of pentoses and hexoses; Anomeric carbon; Mutarotation; Simple chemical reactions of glucose, Disaccharides: Amino acids; Peptide bond; Polypeptides; Primary structure of proteins; Simple idea of secondarytertiary and quarternary structures of proteins; Denaturation of proteins and enzymes.
Classification, structure, functions in biosystems; Hormones Polymers: Classification of polymers; General methods of polymerization; Molecular mass of polymers; Biopolymers and biodegradable polymers; methods of polymerization free radical, cationic and anionic addition polymerizations ; Copolymerization: Natural rubber; Vulcanization of rubber; Synthetic rubbers.
Chemicals in medicine, health-care and food:Browser save file (click to show). ashio-midori.comile wraps a few techniques for triggering a file save. URL browser API creates an object URL for the file, which the library uses by creating a link and forcing a click.
It is supported in modern browsers. msSaveBlob is an IE10+ API for triggering a file save.; IE_FileSave uses VBScript and ActiveX to write a file in IE6+ for Windows XP and Windows 7. B.C. MEDIUM DEVELOPMENTS. B.C. - Boiled tree-sap, called pitch, was distilled into turpentine as a paint thinner for the resin paints.
Also, alcohol was fermented as a drink and as a thinner for alcohol-based paints, made from another tree-sap or grapes.
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl group. Usually, esters are derived from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. Glycerides, which are fatty acid esters of glycerol, are important esters in biology, being one of the main classes of lipids, and making up the bulk of.
Organometallic compound: Organometallic compound, any member of a class of substances containing at least one metal-to-carbon bond in which the carbon is part of an organic group. Organometallic compounds constitute a very large group of substances that have played a major role in the development of the science of.
The chemical formula for an ionic compound represents what? The smallest numbers of ions of the proper kind that provide a correct elemental composition .
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